The predominant aim of Mesmerism was to cure disease. Many mesmerists believed they could cure any ailment; Elliotson specifically recounts in depth his success in curing epilepsy (Elliotson, 1844). Victorians had a great interest in improving and perfecting society. Some believed mesmerism be therapeutic for both society and the individual as it advanced social mechanisms (Kaplan, p.700). Those who believed and followed mesmerism sought to popularise and spread the emerging ideas and practises: from 1836 pamphlets and books began to be distributed (Kaplan, p.700). For example, The Zoist was founded by Elliotson in 1843 because a reputable scientific journal, The Lancet, refused to publish any mesmerist experiments. In addition, some mesmerist followers wanted it to become respected as a science or form of medicine. Establishing it as a science would have been more important to materialist mesmerists, whereas achieving recognition as a form of medicine or healing practise would have been a universal goal for both spiritualist and materialist mesmerists alike. Many see Mesmerism as a contribution to the Enlightenment and scientific advancement. However, it could also be argued that it was a revival of religious and spiritual beliefs in a society of rising secular ideas, becoming increasingly defined by reason and rationality.